From this page you can access information about key macroeconomic variables. In each case our data sources will be given in the right-hand side panel. And from the side panel you will also be able to download the data in Excel or comma-separated (CSV) formats (the latter being simple text files which can be read into any text editor or spreadsheet.)

Income and Output

The subjects on this page are various measures of output and income. We explain each of the most commonly used concepts, provide data on them for the UK and for some other countries, and provide some commentary with accompanying graphs.

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Expenditure Aggregates

For an economy’s productive capacity to be fully operating there needs to a sufficient level of aggregate spending, or aggregate demand. Here we explain each of the main conventional components of aggregate demand and briefly explain how fluctuations in aggregate demand can affect the level of an economy’s output and employment. In commentary we compare the behaviour of the main components since 2007 for the UK, the US and the Euro-one.

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Labour Market

Labour market variables broadly relate to employers’ and workers’ decisions about work and wages. This page explains the main variables – unemployment, wages and earnings, and productivity – and how they are related to one another. In commentary it presents evidence on these variables in the UK and provides some comparisons with other countries.

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Prices and Inflation

Many Central Banks now gear their monetary policy towards achieving a target value for inflation. On this page we briefly explain two key measures of an economy’s prices – the Consumer Price index (CPI) and the GDP deflator – and how measures of inflation are derived from them. We also explain the concept of core inflation.

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Interest Rates

The subjects on this page are nominal and real interest rates. It explains the meaning of both. In commentary we present evidence on the behaviour of long-term and short-term nominal interest rates for selected countries over the last 50 years and in particular on their unusual behaviour in the 21st century. We also show the behaviour of real interest rates in the UK since 1960, and we give examples, drawn from UK experience, of the relationship between an asset’s interest rate and its maturity.

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International Variables

The subjects on this page relate to international variables, namely the balance of payments and the exchange rate. We explain each concept, provide data on them for the UK and for some other countries, and provide some commentary with accompanying graphs.

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